Algebra – Unveiling the Revolutionary Work that Challenges Established Mathematical Assumptions” *within the symmetries of crystals Postdoctoral researcher discovered a counterexample to the fundamental conjecture of the multiplicative nature of reverses.*

On February 22nd on the 22nd of February, postdoctoral mathematician Giles Gardam gave an hour-long online presentation on the unit conjecture, an elementary and confusing algebra issue that was open over the past 80 years.

He meticulously laid out the background to the conjecture, as well as two related conjectures, as well as the connections between them and the powerful algorithm known as *K*-theory. In the last minutes of his presentation he gave the final kicker.

“I’m close to the conclusion of the discussion and it’s now time to share what’s new,” he said. “I’m very content to declare today as the very first time that the unit conjecture is not true.”

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Gardam did not reveal to the audience how he came across the sought-after alternative (except to verify that the source was the use of a computer). He said he’d reveal more details in the coming months according to *the magazine Quanta*. For now He said that “I’m confident that I’ve got enough techniques left to see some positive results.”

The issue Gardam solved is easy enough to convey to students at high school In a wide family of algebraic structures what elements are multicative opposites?

Multiplicative inverses are the result of pairs of numbers, such as 17 and 7 which multiply to 1. However, the unit conjecture is about multiplicative inverses, not just of regular numbers, but of elements within the form of a “group algebra” which is a system that integrates the number system (like those of the real number or certain types of arithmetic that use clocks) with the concept of a group (a broad term that encompasses groups of matrices as well as symmetry transformations, among other things).

At this point, the floodgates were opened, and now everything is again possible.

**Dawid Kielak**

In this kind of structure, mathematicians speculated earlier than eight decades ago that only the most basic elements could be multicatively inversed. Researchers at the beginning to the latter half of 20th-century utilized extensive calculations using pencil and paper to go through these group algebras,

Searching for more complicated elements that had multiplicative inverses. However, they were unable to confirm the hypothesis nor bring up an example that was counter-example.

In the past the unit conjecture and two conjectures related to it came into being “seen as unattainable,” said Dawid Kielak of The University of Oxford. Yet, despite the fact that many mathematicians gave up on trying to prove the three conjectures, they were “always somewhere within the context” of research into algebra He said this, owing in large part due to their strong connections to *the K*-theory.

Now Gardam who is from at the University of Munster, has proved the unit hypothesis by identifying unusual “units” which are elements that have multiplicative inversion the group algebra that is constructed from the symmetries that make up the particular crystallographic shape of three dimensions. “It’s amazing achievement,” said Peter Kropholler from The University of Southampton.

Prior to Gardam’s work without an example or an all-encompassing proof, mathematicians were working into establishing these three theories (or certain of their ramifications) in specific instances.

This often involved tapping into the mighty, but laborious machine that is *the K*-theory. This counterexample discovered by Gardam for the unit conjecture is positive, said Kropholler this because it implies that the effort was necessary.

“At the core of everything, it was always a unanswered problem: If had a convincing proof of the unit conjecture wouldn’t it make a whole many things simpler?” he said. Being aware that the conjecture isn’t necessarily true, he explained this implies that “all the difficult things we attempted to do in order to establish a proof of the unit conjecture were extremely worthwhile.”

Researchers are now charged with studying the underlying principles of Gardam’s complex units. “It’s an exciting time,” Kielak said. “We’re in a moment when the floodgates were opened, and now everything is once again possible.”

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###### Unpredictable Cancellations

The unit conjecture is based on the vast world of group theory that studies sets with some idea about how they can “multiply” 2 elements in order to create a new one.

So long as the operation of multiplication is and well-behaved There are two requirements to be able to classify a set to be a group It must contain a particular element (usually identified by the number “1”) that does not change when multiplied by them, and each element in g has to be a multiplicative inverse (written as g-1) which means that g times g-1 is equal to 1.

(It’s not until we step to the realm of Group algebra which integrates the group and the coefficient number system that the elements appear with no multiplicative inverses as well as the concept of unit conjecture is brought into play.)

The universe of groups is vast There are matrices of groups (arrays made up of numbers) along with groups of symmetry transforms, groups that track the amount of holes within an object or the diverse layouts of a deck cards, as well as groups that are formed in physics, cryptography as well as many other fields.

In the majority of groups, there is only one mathematical operation that is logical. But matrices are different. In addition to multiplying them, you can also add them and multiply them with the numerical coefficient.

Matrixes are essential to understanding linear transformations and objects and due to this ability mathematicians and scientists often gain insights into other groups by figuring out ways to represent groups’ elements in matrixes.

A century back, theorists of group theory began asking what if we were going to represent the constituents of a group in matrixes, why wouldn’t we also include certain of the unique characteristics of matrices in the framework of the group’s original?

In particular, why don’t we consider adding group elements, or multiplying them using coefficients from a number system? If A and B are two elements in a group, you can at a minimum to write down sums such as 12a + 7b, or 4a3 + 2ab2.

These numbers often don’t have any significance in relation to the original group of numbers -It’s just not sensible to discuss half of cards in a deck plus seven times the arrangement. Yet, it is possible to apply algebraic manipulatives to those formal sums.

Mathematicians call the compilation from these sums “group algebra” and this mathematical structure is woven together by the group and the coefficient number system “packs together the information regarding the mathematical representations of the group into one object,” Gardam wrote in an email.

A general statement about groups is usually untrue, unless there’s an evident reason for it to be the case.

Many ways, components in group algebra resemble familiar polynomials of high school algebra, such as expressions such as x2 – 4x + 5, or 3x3y5 +. However, there’s one major distinction.

When the two polynomials are multiplied certain terms could cancel each other out, but the one that has the highest exponent is always able to survive in the process of cancellation.

For instance, (x – 1)(x + 1) = x2 + + x – 1. and even though the x as well as x terms cancel one another and out of the equation, the second expression remains (as does the one) in order to create the equation x2 + 1. However, in maths group, relations between the elements of the group may result in additional, difficult-to-predict cancellations.

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Consider, for instance, that our group is composed of symmetry transformations that form” A. “A.” The group is composed of only two components in the transformation, which removes every point from exactly where it is (the “1” that we have in the group) and reflections across the vertical axis central to it (let’s refer to this as reflection *r*).

Reflecting two times restores every point back to its original position in the lexicon of our multiplication of groups, *r* times *r* equals 1. This makes for various unexpected results within the group algebraFor instance when you multiply *2 by r* + 2 by 23 + -r3, almost everything is canceled out, and all you have to be left are 1:

(r+2)(-r3+23)=-r23+2r3-2r3+43=-r23+43=1(sincer2=1)

In the other words, *r* + 2 and 23 + -r3 are multiplicative reverses.

In the year 1940, an algebraist known as Graham Higman made a intriguing assertion in his dissertation in which he claimed that the worst of this cancellation weirdness, he argued is only possible in the event that the group constructed to create the group algebra has elements whose power is greater than 1, like *the case of r* in the above example.

In the case of all other group algebras Hitman suggested that, even though elements that have one term, like 7a or 8b, may (and have the potential to) have multiplicative inverses those with multiple terms, such as 3r or r + 2 5s will never have multiplicative reverses. Since elements that have multicative inverses are known as units, Higman’s theory became known by the name of unit conjecture.

In the following years, Irving Kaplansky, one of the most prominent mathematicians of this century popularized the conjecture as well as the two group algebra-related conjectures referred to as Zero Divisor as well as idempotent conjectures.

The three conjectures became called Kaplansky conjectures. Kaplansky conjectures. Together, the three conjectures assert that group algebras don’t seem significantly distinct from algebra that we’re used to when multiplication of polynomials or numbers.

However, even though Kaplansky made a point of highlighting these theories, there’s no any reason to believe that he did. They believed in them, Kielak said.

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Irving Kaplansky was a prominent mathematician, who popularized the unit zero divisor, idempotent conjectures during the latter half of the 20th century.

University of Chicago Library, Special Collections Research Center

In the past, there were no proofs to either side. In fact, there was a reason for a philosophical argument to question the assertions as follows: As mathematician Mikhael Gromov was said to have noted, the range of different groups are so diversified that any general assertion about groups is nearly all the time false in the absence of a compelling reason to believe it’s valid.

Thus, for Kaplansky to push the conjecture of the unit was “very outrageous,” Kielak said. The idea was “meant to inspire others to think of clever ways to prove it,” he said.

Mathematicians haven’t been able to create counterexamples and it wasn’t because of a lack of trying. Without a counterexample Kielak declared “you begin to believe that there’s something more to it and that there’s an underpinning principle that we’ve overlooked.”

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###### Collapsing Sums

In the second half of the century of 20th, a possible candidate for that “something more substantial” began to emerge as an algebraic *K*-theory an enormous complex structure that relies on difficult-to-calculate group invariants to connect algebra with a variety of mathematical disciplines including topology and theory. Utilizing *K*-theory for instance researchers were able connect the concept of unit conjecture to the issue of how a topological form can be changed into another shape by merely following a set of rules.

A powerful theory can be a thing of beauty and elegance, however when everything is strict, tightly managed and well-behaved the subject may become very dry.

**Giles Gardam**

Researchers have been able to demonstrate that certain powerful, but not proven *K*-theory theories would suggest that the divisor is zero and Idempotent theories, perhaps revealing a compelling argument for them to be valid. However, they were unable to do similar in the case of the unit conjecture which is the most powerful of the three.

Wolfgang Luck, from the University of Bonn, tried to show it was the case that unit conjecture is derived from an *conjecture known as a*-theory conjecture known as”the Farrell-Jones Conjecture. “I could not prove this,” he said. “I was wondering if I’m a fool.”

Mathematicians nevertheless were able to establish the unit conjecture in certain categories of groups, by demonstrating that these group members had an attribute that was similar to the concept of the greatest exponent of polynomials. However, they also recognized some groups that do not meet this requirement which includes a straightforward one called the HantzscheWendt group.

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This group reveals the symmetries that shape that physicists have thought of as an possibility of a theory for the form of the universe. It is created by glueing the sides of a 3-dimensional crystal. In comparison to others, this is “remarkably unusual,” said Timothy Riley who is from Cornell University.

The Hantzsche-Wendt Group seemed to be an ideal place to look for a counterexample of the conjecture of the unit. But it wasn’t a easy task. The Hantzsche-Wendt group is infinite and therefore there are infinite possibilities, even for small numbers in this group algebra.

In 2010 a couple of mathematicians proved that, if there’s any counterexamples in the group in question, it would not be included in the most simple among these numbers.

Today, Gardam has found two multiplicative inverses that have 21 terms in each the group algebra derived from the Hantzsche-Wendt Group. Finding the pair took an extensive computer search however, confirming that they are inverses is within the capabilities that human computing can do. It’s a matter of adding them up, and then confirming that the 441 words in the program simplify to the number 1. “Everything falls down,” Kropholler said. “That’s incredible.”

Luck is now aware of the reason the researcher was unable to show that the Farrell-Jones Conjecture has the same meaning as the unit conjecture: The Farrell-Jones hypothesis is valid for the HantzscheWendt group however, the unit conjecture is not true. “Now I realize that I was not foolish,” he said.

If Gardam discloses the algorithm’s details and the details of his algorithm, it will an open time for mathematicians to study the Hantzsche-Wendt group, and possibly other groups. “The expectation is that we’ll learn something new, the new technique can be used to create instances,” Kielak said.

Knowing that the theory is not true has altered the thinking of a lot of mathematicians. “Psychologically it’s quite a big change,” Kielak said. “Probably in the next year we’ll have endless” examples.

Gardam’s counterexample is one of the most simple numbers systems to calculate its coefficients, which is a clock arithmetic that only takes the equivalent of two “hours.”

Therefore, one immediate concern is whether there exist counterexamples that use other systems of numbers like the complex or real numbers. Also, there is the issue of whether a particular group exists that is in violation of Kaplansky’s two other theories. This will cause panic in the *Kaplansky*-theory community, as it could contradict certain of the subjects’ fundamental theories.

For Gardam the discovery was the result of years spent searching for interesting counterexamples to algebra. Gardam’s motivation isn’t based on an obsession with bounty hunters as he explained in an email rather, he is after the thrill of excitement that a few intriguing counterexamples could bring.

“Powerful theory is a subject that has its own elegance and beauty however, if the system is rigid, well-controlled and supervised the subject may become very boring,” he wrote. “Surprising instances are a large element of what makes maths exciting and also keeps it challenging and fascinating.”